Title Description
DAC Discretionary Access Control. Access control unclassified data where owner manages access
Data at Rest Data that is saved on a hard drive or device. Protected by FDE.
Data Breach Someone steals or copies data.
Data Custodian Stores, manages, backs up, encrypts, and protects data.
Data Exfiltration Theft of data.
Data Governance The overall management of data, ensures availability and usability.
Data in Transit Information being transferred between two locations. TLS is used to protect it.
Data in Use When an application is launched, its data is run in RAM and is referred to as ‘data in use’. It is not stored on a hard drive like data at rest.
Data Masking Hiding the real data. For example, it may show the last 4 digits of a credit card.
Data Minimization Only collecting the minimal amount of data for a purpose.
Data Owner The person who creates the data and ensures it is protected.
Data Sovereignty Ensuring that data remains in the country where it was created.
Data Steward Ensures that data is of the right quality, is labelled properly, and is stored in the correct format.
DBA Database Administrator. Responsible for the management of a database.
DD Used in Linux environment for duplicating a disk.
DHE A Diffie Hellman ephemeral key. It can only be used one time.
Diffie Helman An asymmetric key exchange method used in IKE phase of an IPSec session.
DDoS Distributed Denial-of-Service. An attacker sends multiple requests to overwhelm a server from multiple sources.
Dead Code Code that is in an application but will not be used.
Deauthentication Sending spoofed frames to prevent connection to a Wireless Access Point. Used by evil twin.
Default Password The password that comes with a device. Easily found on the internet.
DEP Data Execution Prevention. Prevents execution of code from a non-memory area.
DES A 56-bit symmetric key.
Deterrent Discourages anyone carrying out an attack.
DHCP Dynamically allocates IP Addresses.
DHCP Snooping Prevents a rogue host from accessing a DHCP server.
Diamond Model A model for analyzing a cybersecurity incident.
Dictionary Attack A password attack that uses words found in a dictionary.
Differential Backup Backs up files created since the last full backup.
Digital Signature Electronic signature using a private key to prove the integrity of a document.
Directory Service Used to identify management, and to create and authenticate user accounts.
Directory Traversal An attack that crawls through the directory structure of a web server, accessing files and user account details.
DLL Dynamic Link Library. Code that helps giving an operating system more functionality.
DLP Data Loss Prevention. Prevents data in a pattern match from leaving your network.
DMARC Domain Message Authentication Reporting and Conformance. Email validation that prevents malicious email.
DNS Poisoning Modified the entries in a computer’s DNS cache.DNS Poisoning
DNSSEC Encrypts DNS traffic, prevents DNS poisoning, and created a RRSIG record.
Domain Hijacking Modifies the domain registration and steals a domain name.
DoS Denial-of-Service. An attacker sends multiple requests overwhelm a server from a single source.
DPO Data Protection Officer. Ensures that data being collected and stored meets with the data compliance regulations.
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan. A plan detailing how to get a system back up and running following a disaster.
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm. PKI method for creating a digital signature.
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol. Used for wireless authentication.
ECC Elliptic-curve Cryptography. Asymmetric encryption used for small devices.
ECDHE Elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral. A single-use ECC key.
EDR Endpoint Detection and Response. Detects and prevents attacks on a host.
EFS Encrypted File System. Used to encrypt single files.
EOL End of Life. Discontinued product. Warrantied honored and parts available.
EOSL End of Service Life. Discontinued product. No longer supported.
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload. Ensures the encryption and authentication of an IPSec packet.
ESSID Extended Service Set Identifier.
Evil Twin A malicious Wireless Access Point made to look legitimate.
Extranet Web server that sits in the DMZ/Screened submit and has a username and password protection.
Failover The primary server fails and automatically switches over to the secondary server. .
Fake Telemetry Return fake data to potential attackers.
False Negative Scanning system does not identify an attack.
False Positive Monitoring system and manual inspection disagree on an attack.
FAR False Acceptance Rate. Measure of probability that biometric security will grant system access to an unauthorized user.
Faraday Cage Mesh shield preventing emission coming in or leaving your network.
FDE Full Disk Encryption. Encrypts a whole disk and protects data at rest.
FIM File Integrity Monitoring. Ensures that system files have not been tampered with.
Fog Computing Moves IoT devices closer to the source of monitoring.
FPGA Field Programmable Gate Array. Processor that can be programmer by a user.
FRR False Rejection Rate is where an authorized users is rejected.
FTK Forensic Tool Kit. Used for forensic investigation.
FTP File Transfer Protocol. Transfers files in clear text.
FTPS Secured File Transfer Protocol. Encrypted method of transferring files.
Full Backup A complete backup of a server or computer.
Fuzzing Inserting random data into an application to see if it has coding errors or crashes.
Gait Your posture when you walk.
GCM Galois/Counter Mode. A mode of clock chain encryption.
GDPR General Data Protection Regulation. EU regulation of data privacy and personal data transfers.
Geofencing Creating a virtual boundary.
Geolocation Identifying the location of a device.
GPO Group Policy Object. Used to push out configuration to computers.
GPS Global Positioning System. Satellite location device.
Grep Used by Linux to search.
Group Account An account used to manage users in a department.
HA High Availability. Ensures data availability.
Hardening Reducing the attack surface on a host.
Hashcat Used for brute force attack against passwords stored as hashes.
HDD Hard Disk Drive.
Head command Retrieves the top entries in a log file. First 10 entries use head 10.
Heat Map Shows the level of wireless coverage in a network.
Heuristic Able to find new variants of malware.
HIDS Host-based Intrusion Detection System. Can detect pattern changes on a host machine.
HIPS Host-based Intrusion Prevention System. Protects a host machine against attacks.
HMAC Hash-based Message Authentication Code. Verifies authenticity and integrity of a message.
Honeyfile Fake file in a prominent file to detect data theft.
Honeypot Lures attacks to monitor attack methods.
HOTP HMAC-based One-time Password. A one-time password with no time limitation.
Host A computer or device used to access a network.
Host based firewall A firewall on a host machine to protect against attacks.
Hot Site A fully functional disaster recovery site with up-to-date data.
HSM Hardware Security Module. An appliance for storing cryptographic keys.
HTML Hypertext Markup Language. Programming language used by web browsers.
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Clear text protocol used by web browsers.
HTTPS A secure version of HTTP.
HVAC A system that regulates the temperature and humidity using hot and cold aisles.
Hybrid Cloud Using a mixture of on-premises and cloud environments.
IaaS Infrastructure as a Service. Provides the network hardware in a cloud environment.
IaC Infrastructure as Code. Installs resources by automation and scripting.
IAM Identity and Access Management. Provides the identification, authentication, and authorization for users and computers.
ICMP Internet Control Message. Brings back the replies when using command line tools.
Identity Fraud Theft of identity and use of the victim’s personal information for fraudulent purposes, such as for a financial application.
IdP Identity Provider. A service that provides some form of identification for a user.
IDS Intrusion Detection System. Identifies pattern changes on a network.
IKE Internet Key Exchange. Creating a security association between two hosts when using IPSec.
IM Instant Messaging. A method of creating text messages.
IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol v4. An email client.
Implicit Deny Should an ACL have ‘not allow’ rules, then the last rule of ‘deny all’ applies.
Incremental Backup Backs up any changes made since the last full or incremental backup.
Inherent Risk The risk you face if mitigation has not been put in place.
Input Validation Ensuring data is submitted in the correct format.
Insider Threat Disgruntled employee threat actor seeking revenge.
Integer Overflow An attack where a numerical value is too large.
Intranet An internal company web server.
IoT Internet of Things. Small internet connected devices.
IP Internet Protocol. Provides a unique address for a host.
IP Theft Stealing intellectual property.
IPS Intrusion Prevention System. Prevents attacks.
IPSec Internet Protocol Security. Sets up an encrypted channel between two devices.
IR Incident Response. Action taken following an incident.
IRP Incident Response Plan. The action to be taken following an incident.
ISA Interconnection Security Agreement. The type of security used when connecting two entities.
ISSO Information Systems Security Officer
ITCP IT Contingency Plan. A plan put in place to recover from an unexpected incident.
IV attack Initialization Vector. A wireless attack which tries to predict the IV of encryption processes.